Essentials of Cooking-Order of Work


For successful results in COOKING , the work to be done should be planned beforehand and then carried on with systematic care. By following such a plan, a waste of time and material will be prevented and good results will be secured, for there will be little chance for mistakes to occur. The order of work here outlined will serve to make clear the way in which cooking processes can be carried out satisfactorily.
First, read the quantity and kind of ingredients listed in the recipe, and study carefully the method by which they are to be prepared and combined. In so doing, determine whether the dish is too expensive and whether the amounts called for will make a dish sufficient in size for the number of persons to be served. If they are too large, carefully divide them to make the right quantity; if they are too small, multiply them to make them enough. The heat itself, which plays such an important part in cooking, should receive attention at the proper time. If the fuel to be used is coal or wood and baking is to be done, build the fire long enough before it is needed, so that it will be burning evenly and steadily. Then, while the recipe is being prepared, provided it is to be baked, regulate the heat of the oven. If gas or kerosene is to be used, light it after the recipe is read, and regulate it during the measuring and mixing of the ingredients.
Before proceeding to prepare a dish, clear enough working space for the utensils that are to be used, as well as for carrying on the various operations without feeling crowded. Then, on the cleared space, place the necessary measuring utensils, such as a measuring cup, a knife, a teaspoon, and a tablespoon. Select a bowl or a pan for mixing, a spoon for stirring, and, when needed, an egg whip or beater for eggs and separate bowls in which to beat them. Choose the utensil in which the mixture is to be cooked, and, if necessary, grease it. During the process of preparing the dish, measure accurately all the ingredients to be used, and check them up with the recipe, so as to be sure that none are missing and that each one is in its proper amount. If all these steps are accurately taken, the mixing, which is the next step, can be accomplished quickly and without error. With all the ingredients properly combined, the mixture is ready for the last step, the cooking or the baking. This must be done with the utmost care, or an otherwise properly prepared dish may be spoiled.

TABLE FOR COOKING FOODS
So that the beginner in COOKING may form a definite idea of thelength of time required to cook certain foods, there is presented here what is commonly known as a COOKING TIME TABLE. It should be remembered that the time required to cook food is influenced by many factors. For instance, the age of vegetables and fruits very largely determines how long they should be cooked; tough meats and fowl require longer cooking than tender ones; and the heat of the oven has much to do with the length of time required for cooking, especially the process of baking or roasting Therefore, while this time table will prove of great help to beginners, it can serve only as a guide. To determine whether or not foods have been cooked long enough, it is advisable to apply the proper tests, which are given later in discussing the various foods rather than to depend solely on the time table. In this table, the length of time for cooking is given in minutes (abbreviated min.) and hours (abbreviated hr.)

COOKING TIME TABLE

MEATS AND FISH
Broiled
Bacon....................... 3 to 5 min.
Chicken.................... 20 to 25 min.
Fish....................... 15 to 20 min.
Fish, slices............... 10 to 15 min.
Fish, very small............ 5 to 10 min.
Lamb chops.................. 6 to 8 min.
Quail or squabs............. 8 to 10 min.
Steak, thick............... 10 to 15 min.
Steak, thin................. 5 to 7 min.
Veal chops.................. 6 to 10 min.
Boiled
Beef, corned................ 3 to 4 hr.
Chicken, 3 lb............... 1 to 1-1/4 hr.
Fish, bluefish, cod, or bass, 4 to 5 lb.......... 20 to 30 min.
Fish, slices, 2 to 3 lb.... 20 to 25 min.
Fish, small................ 10 to 15 min.
Fowl, 4 to 5 lb............. 2 to 3 hr.
Ham, 12 to 14 lb............ 4 to 5 hr.
Mutton, leg of.............. 2 to 3 hr.
Tongue...................... 3 to 4 hr.
Roasted
Beef, rib or loin, 5 lb.,
rare....................... 1 hr. 5 min.
Beef, rib or loin, 5 lb.,
well done.................. 1 hr. 20 min. Beef, rib or loin, 10 lb., rare....................... 1 hr. 30 min.
Beef, rib or loin, 10 lb.,
well done.................. 2 hr.
Beef, rump, 10 lb., rare... 1 hr. 30 min.
Beef, rump, 10 lb., well done.. 2 hr.
Chicken, 4 or 5 lb........ 1-1/2 to 2 hr.
Duck, 5 to 6 lb........... 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr.
Fish, 3 to 5 lb........... 45 to 60 min.
Fish, small............... 20 to 30 min.
Goose, 10 lb.............. 2 to 2-1/2 hr.
Lamb, leg of.............. 1-1/4 to 1-3/4 hr.
Mutton, saddle............ 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr.
Pork, rib, 5 lb........... 2 to 2-1/2 hr.
Turkey, 10 lb............. 2-1/2 to 3 hr.

VEGETABLES
Boiled
Asparagus.............. 20 to 30 min.
Beans, lima or shell.... 40 to 60 min.
Beans, string.......... 30 to 45 min.
Beets, old............... 4 to 6 hr.
Beets, young........... 45 to 60 min.
Brussels sprouts....... 15 to 25 min.
Cabbage................ 35 to 60 min.
Carrots............... 3/4 to 2 hr.
Cauliflower............. 20 to 30 min.
Green corn............... 8 to 12 min.
Macaroni................ 30 to 40 min.
Onions.................. 45 to 60 min.
Peas.................... 25 to 60 min.
Potatoes................ 30 to 45 min.
Rice.................... 20 to 30 min.
Spinach................. 20 to 30 min.
Turnips................ 1/2 to 1-1/2 hr.
Vegetable oysters...... 3/4 to 1-1/2 hr.

BAKED FOODS
Beans..................... 6 to 8 hr.
Biscuits, baking powder ... 15 to 25 min.
Biscuits, yeast........... 10 to 25 min.
Bread, ginger............. 20 to 30 min.
Bread, loaf............... 40 to 60 min.
Cake, corn................ 20 to 30 min.
Cake, fruit............ 1-1/4 to 2 hr.
Cake, layer............... 15 to 20 min.
Cake, loaf................ 40 to 60 min.
Cake, pound............ 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr.
Cake, sponge.............. 45 to 60 min.
Cookies.................... 6 to 10 min.
Custard................... 20 to 45 min.
Muffins, baking powder.... 15 to 25 min.
Pastry.................... 30 to 45 min.
Potatoes.................. 45 to 60 min.
Pudding, Indian............ 2 to 3 hr.
Pudding, rice (poor man's). 2 to 3 hr.

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